During physical exertion, there is a process that decreases performance. Only after the period of regeneration the body begins the supercompensation necessary to increase the efficiency. Therefore, every new effort, whether in sport or in everyday life, should be made only after the completion of the reconstruction processes. Then, there is full readiness to act in the physical and mental sense, and above all protection against the occurrence of the overload syndrome is ensured. Find out about active regeneration and what is effective muscle recovery after hard training!
The principle of regeneration and supercompensation is based on the body’s ability to rest and regain balance after the effort and preparation with the “supply” to the next, increased load.
An example of well-functioning supercompensation in athletes is the increase in muscle mass due to increased protein synthesis as a result of strength training, and in endurance sports, increasing the heart volume as a result of being able to pump more blood or better supplying muscle with oxygen thanks to the increase in capillaries.
The problem of correct planning of the regeneration phase occurs primarily in competitive sports. However, it also applies, for example, to people who spend several hours every day in a fitness club or gym. Aerobic instructors who often conduct many activities in different clubs should keep it in mind. Time for regeneration is also needed by people who perform 2-3 overtime every day and do not allow themselves to rest even on weekends.
Overloading the organism, burning syndrome and weakening of the immune system are the most widespread effects of such behavior in sport as in everyday life. The result, despite the increased work inputs, are less and less frequent, and the time spent on work or training is less and less productive. Overload syndrome is often manifested in the form of health problems. Therefore, it is better to consider whether rest breaks and treatments to accelerate regeneration would not be more reasonable than straining the body. It should be remembered that rest breaks, forced by overload, do not give positive results in the long run.
How long does regeneration take?
In order to achieve a long-term optimal increase in fitness and efficiency of the body, the next training should be taken only after completing the regeneration phase after previous training and supercompensation. Below we present how a long-term regeneration needs a person depending on age and training
It is best in the morning, before getting up, to measure your resting heart rate and carefully record the values from the following days. If it exceeds the average value by 6-10 beats, caution is advisable. This day should be spent more quietly, or alternatively for a regenerative-compensatory workout.
After a lot of physical effort, the products may break down in the muscles, causing the body to develop aseptic inflammation (without the involvement of foreign factors), which leads to a specific reaction from the immune system.
During long-term efforts at a maximum oxygen intake of 70-75% (pulse ca.190 minus age) or during interval training, the secretion of adrenaline and cortisol hormones increases, which extends regeneration beyond 24 hours.
Although the carbohydrate and electrolyte stores after 24 hours will be full again, neurophyson restoration will last 2-3 days.
The large neurohormonal load caused by cortisol produced in the adrenal cortex exerts such strong influence on the immune balance that, for example, a marathon runner needs a break of 5-7 or even 14 days.
A strong load on the body through an increased supply of cortisol also occurs as a result of intense short-term effort or endurance training with moderate load.
As a result of intensive strength or endurance training (during which the pulse increases for a short time to 200 beats per minute), the concentration of lactic acid in muscle cells increases. Acidification, diminished electrolyte balance and catecholamine increase (stress hormone) cause the body to rest for 2-3 days.
Effort lasting 1.5-2 hours is reflected primarily on the transformation of fats, reduces the supply of carbohydrates and water. In such cases, rest is recommended for 1-2.
Because in everyday practice it is difficult to meet the requirement of making another effort only after completing the regeneration and supercompensation phase, it is worth looking at what are the ways to shorten this time.
One of them is training (regenerative and compensatory), which can be described as active rest. Many professional athletes use this form of training. It is also suitable for all people exercising in fitness clubs. It should be used by instructors who run many aerobic or spinning groups. It is worth every 2-3 days to include this program for classes, which will help in faster regeneration and effectively prevent any effects of overload.
Regenerative and compensatory training
What is regenational-compensatory training? This is a endurance training lasting no longer than 45 minutes at 60% of the maximum heart rate in the training phase = 220 – age x 0.6 (ca. 50-60% VO2 max or max 170-age). In addition, it is worth to supplement it with stretching and relaxation (sauna, bath, massage, etc.).