As a result of recently ended observations – Japanese researchers noticed an unknown face of taurine… As it turns out: this amino acid, which is well-known to sportsmen – an anabolic and anticatabolic – also intensively stimulates fat burning in subcutaneous fatty tissue and facilitates its reduction. By the way…. Japanese people especially like taurine – the majority of information on this supplement come from the Land of the Rising Sun.
Taurine vs fat.
If someone knows a little of biochemistry or endocrinology – they know that insulin shows double sides: on the one hand – it intensifies the synthesis of muscle proteins, on the other – it simultaneously inhibits the breakdown and facilitates storage of spare fat. Therefore, if taurine stimulates the absorption of insulin – supporting the development of muscle mass and the transport of creatine, how can it at the same time facilitate weight loss?… If you remember, there was a fierce discussion on this topic on SdW. By contributing to this discussion – I proved that insulin makes us put on weight only if its spike is stimulated by high portions of glucose (sugar) from carbs. Since the level of sugar always needs to stay in the bloodstream – at a relatively constant level, when a rich portion of glucose (coming from easily assimilable carbs, e.g. white sugar) stimulates the pancreas to secrete large amounts of insulin, it “stuffs” glucose in tissues in uneven proportions: less is transported to muscles, more – to adipose tissue. Muscles have very limited possibilities of storing sugar – in the form of glycogen, while the storing abilities of fat are almost unlimited. In fat cells – glucose is stored after its transformation into glycerol and fatty acids (the ingredients of spare fat). When the secretion of insulin is initiated by taurine (or e.g. leucine) – our hormone “staffs” glucose circulating in the bloodstream in tissues and leads to the drop of its level in blood. Since this level – as we know – needs to be leveled up: the organism releases hormones, which intensively break down spare fat (mainly glucagon, adrenaline and noradrenaline) and it restores glucose which is stored there – in the form of glycerol. In this way – stimulation of insulin with other food ingredients rather than easily-assimilable carbohydrates, doesn’t pose the risk of fat aggregation and it may be conducive to weight loss.
This mechanism was used to explain a paradox, observed a long time ago; insulin-stimulating supplements facilitated (surprisingly!) weight loss and fatty tissue reduction. The most recent studies show, however, that it may be only an additional effect, while – insulin stimulators work in yet another way… For example: leucine, which I wrote about recently, stimulates a certain special enzyme – mTOR kinase. On the other hand, mTOR kinase stimulates the production and activity of intracellular receptors, abbreviated by PRAR-δ, which willingly bind certain fatty compounds (especially omega-3 fatty acids), while this bond stimulates genes for the production of various proteins – engaged in burning fatty acids. The situation is similar in case of taurine – as Japanese researchers convince us. But – let’s start from the beginning…
Taurine and adipose tissue.
I have been writing a lot recently about PRAR receptors, as also researchers pay a lot of attention to them. I will just briefly remind you: they are intracellular receptors (similarly to androgen receptors – for testosterone and other anabolic steroids), which bind chosen food ingredients (mainly fatty acids) and activate genes – as a result of this bond. There are three types of PRAR in fatty tissue – gamma, alpha and delta. While PRAR gamma proliferate fat cells – being conducive to obesity, alpha and delta (especially delta) proliferate all (literally all) proteins engages in the destruction of fatty acids – especially proteins responsible for their intensive burning with releasing thermic energy (thermogenesis), called uncoupling proteins (UCP). In this situation – it is easy to guess that all food ingredients activating alpha and delta will be conducive to weight loss, which we talked about in the previous articles, on the example of leucine and omega-3 fatty acids. It is also worth reminding here that the activation of PRAR alpha and delta (especially alpha) stimulates at the same time anabolism of proteins – in muscle tissue cells…
Our Japanese friends proved that taurine exceptionally strongly stimulates the production of PRAR receptors (especially type alpha) and also all (really all) transport and enzymatic proteins, engaged in burning fatty acids, including a very beneficial for fat reduction and maintaining first-class separation – UCP. Interestingly – this activity of taurine took place only in white (subcutaneous) fatty tissue; our amino acid did not influence the level and activity of PRAR and other fat burners – neither in muscle tissue nor in brown (internal) adipose tissue or other tissues and organs.