Proper training is the most important preventive measure and combats fast and excessive fatigue; provides the development of an adaptive state that reduces the uncontrollable intensity of homeostatic disorders responsible for the occurrence of fatigue. Training improves the tolerance of exercise physiological changes and thus increases the physical fitness of the body. 



Recreation is a systemic set of processes and activities aimed at restoring the homeostasis of the system. The purpose of rest is therefore to abolish the state of fatigue. 


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During rest, anabolic and regenerative processes intensify, the task of which is to supplement back-up materials, remove toxic and unnecessary metabolites from tissues, restore the water-electrolyte balance and acid-base balance. Anabolic processes absorb significant amounts of energy, so rest is a metabolically (intracellular) process that is very active, requiring proper nutrition of the body. 


Rest can be passive or active. 

Passive rest consists in abandoning all physical efforts (sleep) or limiting them to normal, everyday (necessary) life activities. 

Active recreation is the process of restoring homeostasis using optimal movement (recreation – active rest). Movement should apply to other muscle groups than tired ones. The principle of such rest is switching the work of one muscle to the work of other muscles. 

The subject of active recreation is related to the experiment and the so-called the Sjeczenów effect. 

Sjeczen experimentally showed that the most effective rest is, not a momentary calmness (rest) of the working hand, but rest consisting in putting in motion the other hand. The ability of the right hand flexors to move increases with simultaneous static tension of the left hand extensors. 

The observed process is called the Sjeczenów effect. According to the Sjeczen mechanism, this effect is based on the stimulus stimulation of the tired muscle to “biological renewal by another working muscle. The effect on the tired muscle is mediated by the CNS. From the bioenergetic point of view, this concept is meaningless, so it is not valid. The Sjeczenowy effect is more of a mental suggestion, therefore the feeling of rest is only apparent. Of course, this effect can not be generalized and refers to all situations. This is not a universal law (for all muscles and fatigue situations) as some authors suggest. 

In the 1940s, Folbort announced a different concept explaining active leisure. According to Folbort, properly used exercise exercises of specific muscle groups generate impulses that stimulate cortical centers to trigger the braking processes in tired muscles. The braking processes allow tired muscles to return to homeostasis. Folbert’s concept should not be accepted uncritically, because it has not been reliably proven. 

In addition, active leisure is not effective and recommended in all cases. The choice of the right kind of rest depends on the sports discipline being practiced, the type of intensely exercised movements and the extent and extent of fatigue. Active leisure can be used with moderate mental fatigue and light physical fatigue. 

In more serious fatigue states, passive rest is recommended using appropriately selected additional treatments. 



Impact of the senses on the course of fatigue 

Ergonomic examination showed the possibility of increasing the contraction curve of working tired muscle by stimulating the organs of the senses of sight, hearing, smell and touch. This effect is caused by the toning effect of sensory stimuli on the CNS and the autonomic nervous system. Thus, the trophic effect of the nervous system on the muscular system is intensified. The long-lasting and monotonous impact of sensory impulses will soon cause nervous fatigue and reduce the motor efficiency of the working muscle. 


The influence of emotional factors on the course of fatigue 

The CNS coordinates and regulates motor activities through the peripheral and autonomic nervous system. The particular intensity of this influence can be observed by emotional stimulation. A positive emotional state eliminates fatigue and fatigue during muscle work. During emotional stimulation, cortical (cortical) and subcortical centers stimulate the vegetative nervous system, stimulating the physiological processes of internal organs. This action is also carried out by the endocrine system. The result is increased muscular work. 


Emotional (emotion) factors are, among others, Shouts of the audience, encouragement and praise of the trainer, a sense of competition (self-awareness of the need and purposefulness of “being better than the competition). 


The concept of homeostasis according to the Cannon concept 

In 1932, Cannon introduced the term and concept of homeostasis. According to Cannon, homeostasis is the intra -oral state of balance (balance in the internal environment) of life processes and physicochemical parameters of tissues, organs and organ systems. Thanks to homeostasis, the body obtains individualization and stability of the internal environment, despite the constant interference of changing environmental factors. The organism, through homeostasis, opposes entropy, that is, disorder of matter. 

Homeostasis is possible thanks to the structural and physiological integration of the body and the coordination of biochemical processes in the body. These in turn regularities are provided by the humoral and nervous systems. All changes in the external environment start compensating processes (equalizing, balancing) to restore the physiological balance. Mechanisms that maintain homeostasis work on the basis of feedback. 


Stress according to the theory of Selye and Levitt 

According to Selye (1950) stress is a set of non-specific reactions of the body to harmful factors called stressors, eg fatigue, temperature fluctuations, toxins, emotions, mechanical damage to the body, infection. Stressors cause structural and chemical changes in the body, similar to those that occur after administration of adrenocorticotropin. The syndrome of changes in the system caused by stressors is called the general adaptation syndrome. 



The general adaptation team consists of three stages (phases) 

1. An emergency response stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete cotylcaribine, which triggers the release of adrenocorticotropin from the pituitary gland into the blood. Adrenocorticotropin stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids. 

2. Adaptation or phase of resistance – changes in the system to ensure survival (survival) of stress. 

3. Exhaustion phase – when stressors work for too long, the body is sick or dead. 

Sele’s theory, unfortunately, does not adequately reflect the system’s response to stress. Rather, it discusses symptoms of stress, not specific defense and protective mechanisms against stress. 

The concept of stress is more developmentally and usefully (universally) presented by Levitt’s theory (1972). Levitt’s concept of stress was originally related to plants, but it can be used with animals and humans. Similarly, Selye’s theory was developed for animals, but later referred to the stress of plants. 

According to Levitt, any environmental factor that can cause potentially harmful physical and biochemical changes in the body is stress. The change in the body itself is called strain. In Levitt’s theory, stress becomes a stressor. However, what Selye referred to as stress becomes Levitta strain. Unfortunately, this concept of stress is not without errors. 

Levitt distinguishes stress (the stress is strong, violent, the duration of stress is short) and chronic stress (the duration of stress is long). 

Therefore, there are two types of stress response: elastic strain = reversible and plastic = irreversible and two types of elastic and plastic resistance. 


The stress response strategies of the body may be as follows 

1. Avoiding stress. The body excludes harmful factors, avoids them, and prevents their effects. 

2. Stress tolerance 

– avoiding strain (assimilation, tolerance, buffering); 

– strain tolerance (repair, compensation). 

Tolerance relies on immunity due to the body’s ability to maintain homeostasis along with stress (stressor in Selye’s approach). The organism survives thanks to tolerance, compensatory, protective and regenerating processes that eliminate stress. 


There are 3 mechanisms to eliminate and reduce the harmful effects of stress 

1. Assimilating the stress factor – taking the stressor (stress) and metabolizing it to low-harmful forms or putting it down to regions that are not very metabolically active (hair, nails, epidermis, bones). 

2. Buffering of toxic stress factors and thus avoiding strain. 

3. Tolerance of stress (stressor) – despite the adoption of a harmful factor, there are no natural disorders of biochemical changes, provided that the tolerance threshold is not exceeded. 

Tolerance of strain or metabolic disorders is possible thanks to regenerative (repair), protective and compensatory processes. 

The consequences of stress are different. In birds and mammals stress is clearly reflected not only in the functions of vegetative organs (somatic), but also in the psyche and thus in thought processes. The symptoms are anxiety, fear, lowering of self-esteem, depression, pessimistic assessment of reality, lack of faith and hope for the opportunity to improve the situation, insomnia (depression), lack of mental concentration. Stress can also be manifested in different anger, nervous excitement, aggressiveness, psychomotor excitement. Among the somatic (vegetative) symptoms can be mentioned gastrointestinal motility disorders, pulse acceleration and lung ventilation, excessive sweat excretion, weight loss, involuntary skeletal muscle contractions (muscle tremors), coordination and thermoregulation disorders. 


Training in the light of stress theory 

Training is a planned systematic use of physical exercises to effectively increase the physical performance of the body. The result of the training is a set of progressive anatomical and physiological changes towards the improvement and adaptation of the system to intense motor activities. Training triggers the potential for compensatory processes as a result of which hypercompensation can be observed. This condition regenerates the body with a surplus in terms of energy. Systematic repetition of physical exercises in hygienic conditions causes the creation of a specific motor habit. Improvement of this movement habit is associated with the development of specific coordination relations in the CNS. Training also leads to increased oxygen absorption and causes the development of adaptive changes within the muscles. 

Training reduces disturbances of homeostasis during intense physical exercise and increases tolerance to fatigue. In other words, it increases the adaptation to stress and fatigue stress. 

Considering training in the light of Selye’s theory of stress, training should be treated as unnecessary exposure of the body to exercise and fatigue, because these factors reduce the adaptive energy of the organism, which is limited, and at the same time necessary for adaptation. Training depletes the body into adaptive energy. 

The training looks quite different in the light of Levitt’s theory. Training can be considered as a factor in the body’s tempering and triggering effective processes of repair and compensation (strain tolerance). 


Training and physical fitness of the body 

Training intensifies and improves physical activity and increases the supply of oxygen and respiration of tissues, which increases the overall physical fitness of the system. The oxygen uptake capacity increases by 18-25%. Training increases the ejection volume and the minute heart. It improves muscle blood circulation. It increases the formation of capillary vessels in muscle tissue (it develops muscle vascularity). As a result of training, the volume of chambers and atria of the heart increases. Hematopoiesis (blood formation) processes are increased, resulting in an increase in the amount of circulating blood. There is an increase in myoglobin content in myocytes. In addition, in trained people, an increased pressure in the small or pulmonary circulation is observed, which undoubtedly improves the blood supply to the lungs and the efficiency of gas exchange. The outflow of blood from the viscera increases the blood supply to the muscles and the skin. Increased perspiration increases the loss of excess heat. Training contributes to the increased deposition of phosphocreatine and glycogen in the muscles. The motor coordination of muscles is improved, the deep muscle feeling is also improved, making it possible to make more precise movements. 

In the blood of well-trained people there is a greater supply of blood moderators, thanks to which the body is not exposed to an acid-alkaline imbalance during physical exertion. It stabilizes the homeostasis of the body and makes it immune to stress. The maximum ventilation of the lungs increases, because the breathing capacity of the lungs increases. 

Training stimulates osteogenesis and bone mineralization. The bones become thicker and more resistant to mechanical damage. Muscle trailers, joint capsules are also strengthened and developed thanks to the expansion of collagen and elastic fibers. 


The importance of warm-up 

Warm-up is based on the mobilization of physiological activities before a large physical effort. Warm-up includes a team of simple gymnastic exercises. As a result of the warm-up, there is a tremor and tremor thermogenesis, which increases the body temperature. A slight increase in body temperature intensifies biochemical (enzymatic) processes in tissues. The viscosity of the connective tissue in the muscles decreases, the tendon-muscular and neuromuscular spindles undergo induction, thanks to which coordination is improved. The capillaries in the muscle tissue expand, which increases the blood supply to the muscles. Thanks to this, the supply of oxygen and glucose to myocytes increases. Blood circulation and lung ventilation are accelerated. In the joint cavities and boules, the amount of synovial fluid increases, which improves the mobility of the joint apparatus. Through the endocrine and nervous system, the activity of sweat glands is intensified, which are actively involved in thermoregulation and removal of harmful (fatigue) metabolites outside the body. 


Warming up also stimulates the CNS, which determines the necessary movement habit. 

The concept of movement habit 

A habit is a learned (acquired) path of repeated repetition of a series of stimuli and reactions carried out automatically with reduced awareness control. Thus, the habit arises through exercise, based on the mechanism of temporal relations. For athletes, so-called sensory-motor habits are important, for mathematicians – mental habits (eg multiplication). The formation of a habit is associated with the creation of a new, complex coordination of the activities of the nerve centers. This coordination includes the regulation of motor, humoral and vascular functions of the body. Habits are conditioned reflexes, which create structurally new forms of effector (executive) reactions, acquired in accordance with the mechanism of time relationships and as a result of independent (individual) exercise (learning, personal experience). 


The importance of the mechanism of temporal relationships in shaping habits 

The stimuli of the external and internal environment, influencing the CNS analyzers, lead to the creation of temporal relations. Originally neutral stimuli integrated with unconditional signals become conditional signals. The formation of temporal relationships takes place in the cerebral cortex. The centripetal impulses generated by beneficial and correct motor activities are strengthened by some unconditional reflexes, which results in time relations (dependencies, correlations) between them. On the other hand, motor activities that have no utility value, unfavorable (erroneous, ineffective, chaotic) are not strengthened by unconditional reflexes and do not form time relationships; they are eliminated. This phenomenon is observed when learning to walk a child during complicated physical exercises. Selection then takes place, i.e. the selection of movements for coordinated motor acts and their fixation in accordance with the mechanism of temporal relations. 

In the process of shaping movement habits, the participation of the trial and error method is observed. In the course of this procedure, people learn to perform those movements that lead to success, efficiency, benefits. In natural conditions, initially the body performs chaotic, behavioral movements, those that have already been practiced (congenital and acquired during the period of previous ontogenesis). Movements that are hit, effective, enabling the goal to be achieved are remembered and recorded. The more often they will be used the more they will perpetuate. When you find yourself in a similar life situation, these desirable, learned movements (habits) will be used, while eliminating those movements that turned out to be wrong. Habits allow you to quickly perform movement activities with little effort, without too much mental involvement. 

Habits also arise through instrumental conditioning, that is, strengthening the body’s response, not the conditional stimulus itself. In this process, learning is done to make a move that achieves the benefit or the harmful stimulus will be avoided. Instrumental conditioning is based on various drives (biological and social). The body actively and freely participates in the learning process. If a given, accidentally performed activity has any desired consequences, then the organism reproduces these consequences by repeating this action. If the repetition of activities involves a material or psychological reward, then this method of learning becomes particularly effective. 


The participation of I and II signal system in the formation of motor habits 

Sensory pulses, signaling objects and events and triggering conditional reflexes mak

up the 1st signaling system. 

Speech and written word are the second system of reality signals. The stimuli that form the second system are symbols of specific (real) stimuli. Both systems are closely related to each other. Factors affecting the sense organs and their analyzers induce agitation in centers of the cerebral cortex responsible for the verbal determination of these factors. Activation of the visual analyzer while observing the demonstrated methods of performing the exercise always leads to the creation of reflex-conditional relationships also in relation to the signals of the II signaling system (appropriate verbal signs of various types of activities). While using spoken, written and written hints explaining the essence and ways of mastering various types of motor habits and at the demonstration of exercises, reflex and conditional relationships are created in the I and II signaling system. 


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