Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common types of diabetes on a global scale.
The main causes of type 2 diabetes are impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Pancreatic disorders can lead to genetic factors. They also affect the development of insulin resistance. Obesity remains an important factor contributing to insulin resistance.
Genetic factors that increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes remain independent of human will. Obesity, on the other hand, belongs to factors that everyone can influence, that is, modifiable. The development of type 2 diabetes is progressive. Initially, pre-diabetes may be associated with obesity and a genetically determined disorder of insulin production or secretion. Disorders caused by genetic factors may be, for example, secretion of pancreatic hormone with a delay or for an unacceptably long period of time. Pre-diabetes can be difficult to diagnose because glucose levels may remain normal within this time frame.
From obesity to type 2 diabetes
The second factor causing diabetes is obesity, which, if left untreated, forces the pancreas to work excessively. The pancreas strives to keep blood sugar normal, which is why it produces large amounts of insulin. After about a few or a dozen or so years of developing obesity, the beta cells of the pancreas, responsible for the production of insulin, become depleted. Then, the blood glucose is diagnosed rapidly, and as a consequence, the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes develops gradually – its symptoms manifest in the same way. At the stage of maintaining blood glucose levels at or slightly above normal, the disease may show no signs. At this stage, abnormalities can be demonstrated, for example, by the fasting glucose test. People who are genetically burdened with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes should regularly perform such tests as prevention, as well as people suffering from obesity. Disturbing symptoms of the disease appear as the intensity of insulin resistance increases
or reducing the production of insulin by damaged pancreatic beta cells. These include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weakness of the body, frequent urogenital infections, as well as weight loss. The weight loss for type 2 diabetes is related to the lack of insulin that is needed to transport glucose to the cells. Sugar can not be used as an energy material, so it is expelled from the body – hence polyuria and constant feeling of thirst.
Type 2 diabetes as a hereditary disease
It is possible to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, even though it belongs to inherited diseases. Type 2 diabetes usually develops in seniors, although in recent years there has been a noticeable increase in the number of younger people suffering from obesity. Currently, type 2 diabetes also happens in adolescents. Preventing the development of type 2 diabetes consists in taking care of maintaining a proper body weight, using a proper diet and using movement. Physical activity and a balanced diet are effective in the fight against obesity, and thus with type 2 diabetes, which has been confirmed scientifically.
Therapy similar to prophylaxis
The treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus coincides to some extent with prophylactic methods. Therapy includes pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacological methods that are also used as a means of preventing diabetes, namely
– use of dietetics advice
– the use of a balanced diet
– physical activity
The development of type 2 diabetes may additionally require treatment for complications and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Initially, treatment is based on metformin that reduces insulin resistance. Then, in the absence of effects, further drugs are used to support the reduction of insulin resistance. No results result in the need for insulin.
Prevention is better than curing … complications
Type 2 diabetes, which is not treated or is treated improperly, leads to the development of chronic complications, including blindness, amputation of the lower limbs, and renal failure on the background of diabetes. Education of people at risk of diabetes and those already suffering from this disease is very important.
Physical activity prevents diabetes
In the light of current medical knowledge, physical activity helps to prevent type 2 diabetes. However, physical exercise should not overburden the body. Movement of the motor system can cause serious problems, for example with joints. Therefore, physical activity should be selected according to the capabilities of a given person. More important than the intensity of exercise is their regular exercise. Regular physical exercise effectively reduces insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Doctors recommend a fast walk every day, preferably for about 30 minutes a day or at least 3 times a week.
Diet reducing the risk of diabetes (and body weight)
Due to the fact that obesity is one of the main factors causing diabetes, the diet used to counteract the development of this disease is aimed at restoring normal body weight. There is no doubt that slimming in the case of people who are overweight or obese requires time and should not take shortcuts. It is advisable to consult a dietitian, combine a balanced diet with regular, moderate physical activity tailored to the individual abilities of a given person.
The diet used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes is also aimed at reducing body weight. The method of prevention and treatment are therefore similar. People who have an increased risk of developing diabetes and those suffering from this disease usually consume up to 3500 kcal per day. Before starting a diet, it is worth calculating the daily calorie intake, and then gradually reducing their amount in consultation with the dietitian or alone, using a calorific table for this purpose.
Interestingly, people who are overweight or obese think that they do not eat much, or eat little and rarely. It’s a mistake. Two too-abundant meals and snacking between meals very often results in a positive energy balance. As a standard, the reduction diet assumes eating about 1000-1200 kcal per day, which leads to a weight reduction of about 2.5 kg per month.
The diet in the diet of a person suffering from type 2 diabetes using oral medications should contain five meals, including two snacks and three main meals. It is not too much, assuming that a second breakfast and afternoon tea will provide about 200 kcal, and the remaining 800 kcal will be distributed for three main meals. Similarly, a diet looks at a person who is at risk and is very exposed to insulin resistance.
In the diet against type 2 diabetes, it is very important to avoid sweetened beverages, sugar and also sugar-sweetened juices. All products that provide so-called empty calories should be eliminated from the diet. A meal in an anti-diabetic diet takes the form of an apple or yogurt – this low-processed food can save you from insulin resistance. These products do not contain empty calories in the form of refined sugar or hardened fats.
Meals are low-fat and contain little protein (about 10% of proteins, about 10% of fats). Primacy is led by raw vegetables and fruits as well as fiber-rich products. Remember that fiber is also a carbohydrate, but complex. Complex carbohydrates are by far the largest share in the diet against type 2 diabetes. Simple sugars should be kept to a minimum. Simple carbohydrates are easily absorbed and cause a rapid increase in the level of glucose in the body. Complex carbohydrates are completely different. Low consumption of fat and protein means that products of animal origin constitute a small fraction of the menu.
The main ways to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes include expanding knowledge about the disease and factors leading to its development, regular and moderate physical activity and a balanced diet based on complex carbohydrates, unprocessed products of plant origin, assuming low caloric intake and five intake small meals during the day. Interestingly, the methods of prophylaxis of the second type diabetes mentioned above are also used in the treatment of this disease, with the need to implement appropriate pharmacological treatment at the stage of therapy.
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