Side products of the combustion process
A living organism consists of cells. The function of each of them consists mainly in burning the basic nutrients of fats, carbohydrates and oxygen. It is not just work for the job itself. To simplify the matter, I will use an analogy to have a stove in the house where we burn a tree or coal. We do not care that something in this stove is burning. The most important is that heat is generated as a result of combustion, and the room gets warm. Similarly with the human body. We rarely think that fats, carbohydrates and oxygen burn somewhere in us. But we know in general that the result of such burning is the life energy and that thanks to this energy we function. Let’s get back to the stove. Coal and tree burned down and now the tiles are hot. Is this all that happened in the combustion process? Well, no. Usually, not everything turned into ashes. A bit of coal could not keep up with the general combustion and burned to half or even smolder. Chimney and soot appeared in the chimney as by-products of an unburned raw material. In special circumstances, these two products become lethal to people enjoying the heat of the furnace.
Unfortunately, the combustion that takes place inside our body leaves equally harmful by-products. This is happening in the following way, the correctly burnt oxygen atom contains four electrons (this is what we learned in primary school in physics class). But, just as in the furnace, something will not go through the combustion process until the very end. Although no soot or carbon is formed from the “unburned particles”, an oxygen atom with equally lethal properties is formed. It is an atom with only one electron.
While four-electron atoms are stable and produce energy that is beneficial to our life, single-electron atoms just the opposite. They feel badly alone and “fuss about looking for a couple. Like hooligans on a country party. They attack healthy people and steal electrons from them.
To steal, you have to hit. Nobody will give anything away for free. Atom-huligan attacks, damages the target object, steals and escapes. What does the cell robbed of her electron do? He suddenly loses all his energy. It is as if the thief has robbed us of the achievements of all life. We break down, we lose the desire to do anything. More or less, a cell devoid of electron feels the same. “He is dying of grief, or he is mutating.
Hooligan with a single-electron atom is a free radical
The cell stolen by him is primarily a loss for herself, that is for us, because the larger the size of the losses, i.e. the more cells we have died, the easier it is for various diseases. Bodybuilders are concerned about the fact that as a result of the destruction of muscle cells there is a disturbance of energy metabolism in the muscles, and this almost always results in the limitation of the bodybuilding capacity of the bodybuilder.
The same cell mutated due to electron theft and damages caused by free radicals is a serious threat. In favorable circumstances, it in turn induces the mutation of DNA chains. Hence, just a step to cancer.
All this sounds scary, but luckily there are defense mechanisms that complicate life for both free radicals and mutated cells. The problem is not to allow a situation in which the number of free radicals significantly exceeds the number of defense mechanisms.
The importance of effort in the production of radicals
When the physical exercise begins, the oxygen requirement of the system increases. If the amount of energy spent during work is constant (eg when we are walking on a bike or when we march), the oxygen absorption is set at the level of “usual norm. This means that we use as much as we need. The balance is balanced, and the body has neither lack nor excess oxygen. However, when the situation requires a sudden accumulation of more oxygen in the tissues, eg during intensive training, the combustion process rapidly increases during which free radicals are produced. If, therefore, we hear that a person who is slimming away in the bone and burned during training eg 2 kilograms of fat, without securing in the right way, then let’s think about how a large legion of free radicals has been made in place of these 2 kilograms … What do these proportions look like? , best illustrated by a concrete example At rest, a human consumes 224 milliliters of oxygen per minute. During intense physical activity, a person may use twenty times more, and therefore even 448O ml. As much as 95 percent of the oxygen used is used to produce the energy we need to do the exercises. This is a necessary standard. but – nothing for free. By-products of such a process are free oxygen radicals. It is worth to know, for example, that during 10 minutes of intensive training, more radicals are generated than during the entire day when we waste our time sitting in front of the TV. The price for the coveted improvement of our physical form is inevitable production of free oxygen radicals by the respiratory system.
The more they are, the slower the repair processes take. The faster the body grows older. The harder it is to regenerate after training.
Genetic changes in the system
There were attempts of free radicals in vitro (laboratory). It turns out that they modify, or even deform, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleotides (protein combinations). If a free radical forms close to a DNA molecule (human genotype), it can affect changes in its structure, causing mutation or toxic changes. Translating this into a language understandable to everyone, I explain briefly what causes degenerative joints, bone or muscle diseases, as well as cancer risks. The activity of free radicals to a smaller or larger extent almost never ends. This applies even to the usual physiological metabolism (metabolism), and therefore not caused by effort. In fact, free radicals are also formed during eating and not necessarily only fatty foods!
All this sounds shocking, because in practice it may turn out that almost all food is able to harm us by producing free radicals during the physiological process of digestion. If one were to accept such a thesis, there would be nothing else but to recognize the very process of life as one of a great and chronic disease, from which it releases the ceremonial funeral!
Everything sounds rather macabre and does not encourage either spring kicking on the plot or even more for any sport. But this is only a semblance. The thing is to know what to do to reduce radicals.
Fortunately, each of us is genetically protected to a lesser or greater extent. Defense equipment consists of tocopherols, glutathione, ascorbic acid and other antioxidants, which in a smaller or larger percentage “sit in our body, are ready to counterattack and actually counterattack if necessary. Unfortunately, in each case intervention of human reason is necessary.
I give this example Tocopherol (“human name active vitamin E) may work antioxidant, that is, it can eliminate the free radical when the concentration of lipids in the body is elevated. However, when the lipid concentration is low, tocopherol has no antioxidant properties.
In practice, this is very important. Therefore, if we eat roasted ribs or bread with lard or fried pancakes, we should also use vitamin E, which will fight and reduce free radicals. After eating the lean ham (which determines the low concentration of lipids), vitamin E will no longer be able to defend the body, because there is no catalyst, or the factor that provokes this vitamin to defensive activities. Then you should use the opportunity of another defender (reducer), which I will mention later. Vitamin E is a powerful reductor of free radicals, it works as I have described above, but when it does not have support (fat), we can only count on other protective mechanisms.
This other mechanism is vitamin C, but it should also be used deliberately
Well, some researchers express the opinion that in low concentrations it acts as an oxidant (hence a producer of free radicals), while in high – as an antioxidant (a positive factor). It would mean that eating one apple, orange or a handful of currants is the best water for a mill of free radicals, while a kilogram of the same fruit or support for a single piece of vitamin C – gives you the desired effect. In practice, it is difficult to remember all of this, at least at the beginning, but apparently this is the mechanism of the body’s functioning and it is worth remembering about it from time to time. The permanent mechanism protecting the body against free radical forms of oxygen is an organic coenzyme, ie a glutathione existing permanently in our body, consisting of three amino acids (glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine), produced in cell organelles. In practice, we can treat glutathione as an “ex officio lawyer. Guns, he must, but he does not show special activity.
Other antioxidants that function on the status of an “advocate from office, are organic tracheal-bronchial and gastro-intestinal airlocks. They have the ability to capture certain radicals in the airways and digestive tract, as well as those that are found in the contaminated air.
This is very important, because knowledge of test results will allow everyone to choose the way of training and to determine the time of exercise.
In 1993, researchers from the Academy of Physical Education took the trouble to determine the impact of physical exercise on the process of lipid oxidation, i.e. organic fats (I recall all forms of oxidation end with the production of free radicals) and the development of the mechanism of free radicals in healthy people.
The research was conducted on a group of 109 healthy people, aged from 19 to 25 years. It was, among others, for determining the concentration of lipid peroxides in the blood plasma depending on the training load. It has been confirmed that during increased physical activity there may be an increase in the production of free radicals and acceleration of the lipid oxidation process. A noticeable difference occurs between the activity of radicals in the resting state of the body and the same activity during exercise.
During physical exertion, the process of blood circulation changes, and as a result some tissues are hypoxic. These hypoxic tissues become sensitive to the effects of lipid oxidation products. In addition, the edema of cell mitochondria, loss of organic protein and haemolysis (the process of rupture of red blood cells connected with the extraction of hemoglobin outside the cell) was observed during exercise. All this additionally contributes to the increased formation of free radicals.
The production of free radicals increases sharply during maximum efforts. In particular, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is exposed to the radicals in tissues in which the oxygen metabolism is most intense in the brain, liver, kidneys and cardiac muscle. Therefore, the heavy physical load may pose a threat to the body function due to damage to cell membranes, mitochondria and lysosomes (spherical cellelles filled with enzymes).
The formation of free radicals is therefore the best medium for the development of cancer, emphysema, osteoarthritis and other diseases.
Way to radicals
The situation is different during moderate effort, when we do exercises for 60 percent of our abilities.
Then the metabolism can be correlated with this effort, resulting in the adaptation of skeletal muscles to physical exertion. In short, a moderate physical effort can affect the reduction of lipid oxidation. For a functional balance is created. If the researchers would stop at this, one could say that professional sport has little to do with a healthy lifestyle. Fortunately, it turns out that the formation of free radicals during exercise depends to a large extent on the degree of physical fitness. If the planned exercise exceeds the adaptive capacity of the system, the army of free radicals invades. This is the best tip for beginners in any sport
Unprepared should not practice hard.
The increase in intensity must be graded.
Preceded by the adaptation of the body to exercise.
Any improvement of the unprepared organism for strength, and therefore the use of chemicals that artificially increase muscle performance, ends with an extremely intense attack of free radicals! A candidate for a master who after the first day of exercise asks what to “take to make him multiplied muscles from the point of view of the theory of free radicals development – Musikadze exposed to a whole set of disease factors that will work sooner or later, but they will work for sure. Preparation of muscles for effort must be done rationally, because only then can you train without fear of consequences. The exaggeration of load is particularly dangerous for beginners. And under the influence of excess hormones, everyone tries to impress their friends, which again can not be called otherwise, but stupidity.
Trained people can count on the fact that during training the enzymes that protect the cell against free radicals and the products of their dismutation (processes causing tissue degeneration) increase. Also in the case of trained people there is a reduction in LDL cholesterol (“bad”) during training, which may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Interesting is the role of vitamin B2, which is released during training. Under its influence, the production of free radicals is inhibited by the enzymes produced by BZ. These enzymes are involved in the defense mechanisms of the cell against the toxic effects of oxygen. And everything comes from the fact that physical effort affects the lowering of glutathione levels in the liver and skeletal muscles. To compensate for the deficiency, vitamin B2 feeding is necessary.
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