Myth no. 1 Calorie equals calories; if you provide fewer calories than you need, you lose weight.
The truth is that individual numerical caloric demand is not the only factor that affects the composition of our body. A few other determinants have to be taken into account
Thermal food effect (TEF).
The thermal effect of food measures the amount of energy that is required to support the process of digestion, absorption, assimilation of nutritional values from food, and the transport of energy to the body’s cells. All existing cells in the body must exchange their protein structures with the surrounding environment. Energy consumption is also measured as a result of stimulation of the central nervous system in the metabolism process. It should be remembered that people exercising nitrogen exchange are significantly increased. The fat is very easily processed and causes a very small thermal effect, while the protein has the highest level of thermal effect. The estimated number that should be taken into account is about 10% of the total caloric daily balance, but it should be remembered that the more protein in the diet, the greater the percentage of the thermal effect.
The content of fiber (fiber).
Due to the chemical characterization of fiber, it is not classified into carbohydrates. However unlike them, it is a complex of substances of cell walls of non-digested and non-digested plants in the human digestive tract. For example, if we would like to obtain 300 kcal from red beans (where ~ 30% of the caloric content consists of fiber only) approximately 100 kcal will pass undigested through the digestive tract. Fiber also delays the conversion of carbohydrates by partially blocking the access of glucose to the blood. It should be remembered that fiber intake also has a positive impact on the body, reduces cholesterol, regulates the activity of the intestinal flora, etc. A person who cares about weight loss is the fact that the presence of fiber helps to lower blood glucose and insulin levels.
Glycemic and insulin index.
The ability of each carbohydrate to increase the level of glucose in the blood is determined by the so-called glycemic index. The more glucose appears in the blood after consuming a given carbohydrate, the higher the glycemic index. When the glycemic index of the product is higher than or equal to 60, the blood glucose level increases rapidly after taking it, assuming a high value, which results in increased insulin secretion, and the consumption of a low index product results in a slow and relatively small increase in the sugar level, and thus – a small burst of insulin. High level of insulin stimulates the lipase enzyme – stimulating lipogenesis (building adipose tissue), and on the other hand it inhibits the formation of another enzyme that breaks down lipids (lipolysis). In short, excess insulin, in any form, promotes the formation of adipose tissue, and on the other hand, blocks the enzyme “burning fat. The insulin index is defined as the feedback between the glycemic index of foods and the insulin concentration, this is a more accurate measurement of insulin releases over consumed meals.
Carbohydrates and fats.
The primary function of insulin is the transport of glucose to the skeletal muscle, in addition, insulin facilitates the storage of fat circulating in the blood serum to fat cells. As the consumption of carbohydrates stimulates the growth of insulin, and fatty foods increase the level of lipids in the blood, eating them simultaneously, much more raises the level of lipid storage.
The size, frequency and time of eating meals.
Large and rarely accepted meals are not fully metabolized, they tend to postpone, it is a defensive reaction of the body, he is not sure when he can expect the next meal. We consume less food in the meals we eat more often, which leads to an increase in metabolism, and thus to the use of almost fully consumed food. In addition, it should be mentioned that carbohydrate intake before bedtime inhibits nocturnal thermogenesis and increases the accumulation of lipids during sleep. When we consume richly caloric meals in the early part of the day, this problem gives way, we consume calories consumed as energies for daily physical activity.
Very well, the above claims are presented by Demling who conducted scientific research analyzing the diets of 38 policemen. Demling discovered that, although the police had a low supply of caloric balance, they have gained a high body fat content over the past five years. Since everything that they had to do to lose fat tissue would keep the caloric balance negative, but the effect was quite the opposite. And to confirm the importance of the factors mentioned above, let’s see what he noted in the Demling study
– only 15% of their diet is a protein,
– their diet contained small amounts of fiber,
– over 50% of carbohydrates consumed consisted of simple sugars, which contain a high index in the glycemic and insulin index,
– they did not record this, but I suppose that they did not specifically avoid the carbohydrate fat composition,
– they ate rarely, only 10% of their caloric balance consumed during breakfast, and more than 50% were consumed at bedtime,
At the moment, it is known that the loss of body fat does not only depend on the caloric deficit.
Myth no. 2 Dietary supply of cholesterol, high cholesterol in the blood.
The amount of cholesterol we eat does not affect the increase in cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol in our blood consists of food sources (exogenous) depending on the diet and biosynthesis (endogenous cholesterol). Production occurs in all nucleated cells, but mainly in the liver, intestines and skin. When we accept low cholesterol, the body compensates for this by producing more, leaving a relatively constant level of concentration, and vice versa, if it increases the supply of cholesterol in the diet, the liver will produce less. In fact, changes that occurred by providing more cholesterol are only a few percent in the total level. In the study, where the amount of cholesterol was reduced by 35%, it was noted that the decrease in total cholesterol in the blood is only 2-3%.
In addition, the study showed that people who used a diet with high supply of fats and proteins, and low carbohydrate intake, took much more than 300mg of RDA cholesterol per day, in fact their lipid profile improved during the test phase. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL, bad cholesterol) went down, and high density lipoproteins (HDL, good cholesterol) increased.
If the supply of cholesterol is not a direct cause, what is it?
From a dietetic point of view, it turns out that the cause is trans fat, and more specifically the trans fatty acids, which express the greatest harmful effect on the level of cholesterol in the blood. These acids occur in natural form, e.g. milk and butter, however, in the largest amounts they are produced in the process of hardening vegetable oils by hydrogenation, subjected to high pressure during production, ie hard margarines, bars, pre-packaged cookies, crisps, crisps, breakfast cereals. Trans fatty acids are a form of unsaturated fatty acids, which, as found in the studies, in the body behave like saturated fatty acids, i.e. they have atherosclerotic effects. At the moment, most margarines are produced from vegetable oils by means of transesterification, thanks to which trans acids are found in the highest amount in traces.
Unsaturated acids are susceptible to oxidation, i.e. oxidation, the higher the degree of unsaturation of fat, the lower its resistance to atmospheric oxygen. When frying on oils rich in unsaturated acids, such as sunflower and soybean oil, compounds are formed, i.e. peroxides and lipid hydroxides that show atherosclerotic effects.
The harmful effects of cholesterol are greatly enhanced by its oxidation or after oxidation of fatty acids that accompany it in the serum. Oxidation can also occur in the serum itself if the intake of vitamin E, C and carotene is low. These vitamins protect fats from oxidation.
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