Obesity ventral can lead to serious health problems and significantly worsen the quality of life. The fat tissue accumulating on the stomach is much more dangerous than the one that is concentrated in other parts of the body, e.g. thighs or buttocks.
Obesity The abdominal, also called visceral, central, visceral or apple type, is the worst among all types of obesity, because sooner or later it leads to metabolic disorders and disorders of the lipid metabolism, diabetes, hypertension, which form the metabolic syndrome. Fat tissue located on the abdomen in connection with hypertension or diabetes significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease complications, leads to heart attack and stroke.
People living with obesity live harder.
They are often unacceptable by the environment, they are more likely to suffer from other equally serious diseases, have postural defects, and emotional disorders. Meanwhile, statistics show that from year to year, the number of people with obesity is increasing, and 30%. of them has obesity so-called abdominal. Epidemiologists beat alarm obesity has already reached the size of a pandemic. Doctors and dieticians warn that it is easier to keep weight in check than to cure obesity, because the body defends itself against the removal of each kilogram. So if you have too big a stomach, it’s better to get rid of him as quickly as possible so as not to expose yourself to another serious illness.
Measure the waist circumference with a tape measure.
If it is between 80-87 cm (and in men 90-94) – you are overweight when it is equal to or exceeds 88 cm (in men 94) – it is already so-called obesity. Abdominal.
The distribution of body fat can also be determined by dividing the periphery measured around the waist by the hip circumference. The value of the WHR index (wist-hip ratio) greater than 1.0 in men and 0.85 in women indicates abdominal obesity. You have to get rid of it in time to not treat the diseases that make up the metabolic syndrome. It is worth knowing that the BMI index is less important in diagnosing abdominal obesity – it does not give information on the location of fat tissue. You can weigh too much, but the belt circumference is compliant with the standard. It also happens that BMI is normal, yet there is abdominal obesity.
In abdominal obesity fat accumulates not only under the skin, but also in the internal organs – skeletal muscle, heart, pancreas, liver. The fatness of internal organs worsens their work. It increases the risk of colon cancer, pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer.
Fat tissue located on the abdomen is an active organ of internal secretion.
The excess of free fatty acids leads to an increase in the production of insulin and inflammatory substances and enzymes contributing to hypertension. Fat located on the stomach is conducive to raising the level of sugar and triglycerides and lowering the fraction of good cholesterol (HDL) in the blood.
Because of the abnormal fat metabolism in the body, abdominal obesity is often accompanied by type 2 diabetes. Cells that take energy to live off glucose can not get it because they do not open themselves with the insulin key. To break this resistance, the body releases more and more insulin. In the end, the fat pancreas can not produce more of it and the sugar stays in the blood instead of penetrating the cells.
Disturbed lipid metabolism increases the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. As a result of the build up of cholesterol in the blood vessels, ischemic heart disease develops and / or reduces the efficiency of the brain. When the atheromatous plaque closes one or more vessels in the heart, it comes to a heart attack. Obstruction of one of the arteries supplying the brain leads to stroke. Atherosclerotic lesions can occur throughout the body, leading eg to damage to the retina of the eye.
Excess body fat in the internal organs, atherosclerotic changes in the arteries – all this hinders blood circulation. The vessels must flow more and under more pressure (the risk of hypertension in women with obesity is four times greater). Fat deposited on the stomach affects the increase of blood clotting and the formation of blood clots. As the weight increases, the body’s oxygen needs to increase, so the volume of the blood pumped through the heart increases, which leads to the hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Fatting the heart additionally impairs his work.
1. Sex and hormones
Men are more susceptible to abdominal obesity because of natural reasons – hormones and the structure and distribution of adipose tissue decide about it. In men, adipose tissue usually has an abdominal and chest belt. Here it is different than in the other parts of the body contains more blood vessels, more cells and more receptors. That is why it grows faster.
In contrast, estrogens, or female hormones, promote pear-type obesity – in women, fat usually accumulates on the hips, buttocks and thighs (it is an energy store and a protective layer for the fetus).
2. Hormonal disorders in women
In the abdominal obesity in women sex hormones contribute to the disturbed estrogen-progesterone ratio. Sex hormones control the proper distribution of body fat, and when it is shaken, fat deposits on the stomach. Hormonal balance can disrupt contraceptive pills. It is good to control the level of hormones in the blood to change the drug or method if necessary.
In women, the most common abdominal obesity is after menopause. Then the female hormones extinguish, and at the same time the secretion of male hormones stimulates. This is what causes changes in the distribution of body fat.
To a greater or lesser extent, almost all ladies gain weight, whether they were slim or fuller shapes. The reason is the lowering of both estrogen and progesterone levels. Low levels of estrogen disturbs the metabolism of sugars. As a result, they are deposited in the form of fat in those parts where there is a large supply of adipose tissue. In women, among others on the stomach.
The decrease in estrogen also makes the central nervous system produce less serotonin. As a result of the mood deterioration, the body tries to save a greater appetite for sweets. Due to the low level of estrogen, the desire for fatty and caloric foods, such as alcohol, also increases. Weight gain after menopause is also supported by higher levels of androgens (male hormones), which are responsible for abdominal obesity.
During chronic stress, more of the brain-only neuropeptide Y is released (the hormone responsible for the accumulation of fat in cells). Together with cortisol, it triggers abdominal obesity not only because of greater appetite. Fatty tissue in the abdominal area has the most receptors sensitive to cortisol, which opens fat cells, allowing the accumulation of stocks in them. In stressful situations, the production of leptin – a hormone produced in adipose tissue, which has the opposite effect to neuropeptide Y (gives a sense of satiety), is reduced, which is why we are still hungry and eat up.
The stressful situations are accompanied by the increased production of norepinephrine – a hormone to which we owe an uncontrolled appetite for carbohydrates, especially sweets. And because carbohydrates are involved in the production of the happiness hormone – serotonin – which improves the mood, many people stress bars and biscuits, supplying themselves with calories. Stressed people often have trouble sleeping. And because they find disturbed production of leptin, which normally is secreted at night in larger amounts, these people are often hungry and eaten at night.
5. Some medicines
The deposition of fat on the stomach is promoted by steroids used in the treatment of bronchial asthma or rheumatic diseases. It is important that when taking hormonal drugs, be sure to watch the right diet and move more.
When a metabolic syndrome, diet and movement have developed in a patient with abdominal obesity may not be enough. Then depending on what the patient will have to, he must also take appropriate medications, such as for lowering blood pressure or regulating blood sugar and increasing insulin sensitivity. In some cases, your doctor may recommend a medicine to lower your blood lipids. To support weight reduction, the doctor may also recommend prescription drugs to support obesity treatment. However, you must be aware that there is no such drug that the manufacturer would not recommend the simultaneous use of diet and increased physical activity.
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