We no longer have any doubts that diabetes is a civilization disease. But what does the pre-diabetes condition look like? The problem with him is more and more people, but he is still not treated as a disease. And this is a big mistake, because an untreated prediabetic condition is almost inevitably associated with the onset of diabetes in the near future if you do not take appropriate action.
Pre-diabetes does not manifest itself in a visible way. People with hyperglycemia may not experience any symptoms characteristic of diabetes, although sometimes, for example, an increased thirst may occur. The factors in which the prediabetes may be suspected and one should perform the tests are primarily obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, family history for diabetes, hypertension or lipidogram disorders.
What is the pre-diabetes state and how do you check if you are ill?
We are talking about pre-diabetic status when the fasting blood sugar level is outside the upper limit of normal and the lower limit for diabetes. Norma assumes that fasting glucose should not exceed the limit of 70-99.99 mg / dl (3.89- 5.56 mmol / L). Lower blood glucose below 70 mg / dL is hypoglycaemia. We talk about prediabetes in two cases
– in case of impaired fasting glucose (IFG – Impaired Fasting Glucose) fasting glucose 100-124,99 mg / dl (5.56-6.94 mmol / l)
– with an impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) at the 120th minute of the oral glucose test glucose is 140-199.99 mg / dl (7.78-11.11 mmol / l)
The oral glucose load test consists of taking a blood sample on an empty stomach (fasting, at least 8 hours after the last meal, a person rested, after a good night’s sleep, after 3 days of eating a diet with normal carbohydrates) and then drinking by adults 75 g anhydrous glucose (in the case of children 1.75 g per kilogram of body weight) dissolved in 250-300 ml of water, drunk within 5 minutes. During the test (120 minutes) the subject stays at rest, in a sitting position. After 120 minutes, a second blood sample is taken in order to re-evaluate the level of glucose in the blood plasma. Until another sample is taken, the subject can not eat, exercise or smoke.
For clarification about diabetes, we say when
– the glucose concentration measured at any time of the day (i.e. the so-called contingent glycemia) is equal to or exceeds 200 mg / dl (≥ 11.11 mmol / l)
– twice the fasting glucose level exceeds 125 mg / dL (> 6.94 mmol / l),
– in the second hour of the oral glucose load test, the glucose level exceeds 200 mg / dl (> 11.11 mmol / l)
Pre-diabetic status – activities and treatment
While in diabetic patients, in addition to an antidiabetic diet, pharmacological treatment is often necessary, in the case of pre-diabetes, the doctor simply recommends a change of lifestyle and diet. Unfortunately, this is a rather general slogan that does not appeal to many people, so after leaving the doctor’s office they return to their old habits. This is a big mistake, there is no jokes with high glucose. In the pre-diabetic state you need to look at several aspects of life.
First, diet. You must exclude processed foods and sweets from the menu, as well as anything that rapidly raises glucose in your blood. Carefully, therefore, you should also dose the fruit with a large glycemic index, with a lot of simple carbohydrates. It’s best to combine them with other products that lower the glycemic index of the entire dish. For example, instead of eating the banana itself, it’s better to eat it with natural yogurt and a handful of nuts. Also pay attention to the most commonly used vegetables, freshly squeezed vegetable and fruit juices and products rich in fiber. Fiber reduces blood glucose levels because it causes the sugar to be released gradually. By this we are satiated after a meal for longer. Sugar detox can be carried out.
Second, physical activity. Overweight and obesity is a simple way to diabetes, so if you are struggling with excessive kilos, then it is worth taking care of restoring the weight to normal. It is also good to remember that activity should mean not only exercises once a day, but also generally involve movement during the day. Get off the bus earlier, go up the stairs instead of using the elevator, walk to the store located further. You can also change in the summer for a bike or go for a longer walk after returning from work. This is especially important for people who work in a sitting position. Studies clearly show that the sedentary lifestyle adversely affects, among others, on the transformation of carbohydrates and promotes the development of insulin resistance. Therefore, even if you can not give up the sedentary lifestyle because of work, it is worth getting up every hour to stretch your legs and walk a few times along the corridor.
Thirdly, metformin in the case of insulin resistance. In people with insulin resistance, the doctor may prescribe metformin. It is a medicine that improves the sensitivity of the body to insulin, which can protect against diabetes. Metformin works hypoglycemic, but does not cause hypoglycaemia, making it safer than stronger drugs used already in diabetes. Metformin is also sometimes used in people with type 2 diabetes. Its great advantage is that it may favor a gentle decrease in body weight in overweight and obese people. Metformin also has antiaggregatory activity, lowers triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, and also has anti-cancer activity. The most serious side effect of metformin therapy is lactic acidosis, which is caused mainly by tissue hypoxia and leading to deterioration of kidney function, so it should not be used in people with renal insufficiency, respiratory failure, cardiovascular failure, liver failure, after myocardial infarction and with leukemia. Very common side effects of metformin include gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and loss of appetite. These symptoms usually occur at the beginning of treatment and sometimes they disappear spontaneously during further treatment. Long-term treatment with metformin leads to a deficiency of vitamin B12, which causes an increase in the homocysteine concentration in the blood. In this case, it is recommended to periodically test the concentration of this vitamin in the blood.
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