- Comparison with HIT and HIIT
Tabata exercises should be selected in a manner that at the same time guarantees safety and appropriate level of effort. Tabata is not HIT training (high intensity training), which consists in very meticulous observance of the quality and time of the concentric, isometric and eccentric phases of muscle work. In the table, the attention is directed more towards the context of the high pace of the exercise.
Tabata is one of the methods of HIIT (high intensity interval training). One of its features is the achievement of maximum or close to maximum (90-100%) values ??in the amount of oxygen intake during exercise. This information becomes an important indicator of intensity control and thus the quality of training tabata.
- A way to control the intensity of effort
Having a heart rate monitor and designated effort zones, you can by trial and errors select the intensity of tabata so that the scope of work takes place in the effort zone above the anaerobic threshold. In tabata, the effort should ultimately target maximum oxygen uptake. This means that it should be an effort above the threshold of anaerobic transformation.
At the threshold of anaerobic transformation, about 50-60% of maximum oxygen uptake is consumed most frequently. The best athletes of endurance disciplines can use up to 95% on this threshold. In the tab, the goal is a supra-threshold effort, which will be much closer to the submaximal and maximum oxygen uptake values.
By ending the tabata with deep and strong breath with the simultaneous ability of relatively free speech, you most probably work at the threshold of anaerobic transitions of medium intensity. Some athletes can maintain the intensity of such an effort for an hour. To get closer to the HIIT exercise parameters, you should have a shortness of breath at which you can not talk.
- Impact on energy systems
Tabata training affects both energy systems of the body’s energy – oxygen and anaerobic. It leads to a large oxygen debt, which must be paid off after the training. Then, oxygen intensification and the use of fat as an energy source are intensified. Tabata is therefore good for fat burning.
- Warming up
The fact that the training lasts only 4 minutes becomes a myth when one takes into account the fact that it must be preceded by a warm-up. Tabata is the maximum effort. This means that the body systems and organs achieve the highest functional working ceilings. The time to reach these ceilings is different for systems and organs. Pain in the region of the liver, spleen during exercise without a sufficient warm-up indicates lack of synchronization of organ readiness for work.
Systems and organs best increase their readiness to work with little intensive but continuous effort. That should be the general part of the warm-up. Then, practice the scheduled exercises, do them fewer times or with more rest. Yes, to wipe the pathways of neuromuscular stimulation for the proper technique of doing exercises.
It’s good that this part of the warm-up has already launched the anaerobic transformation system. The intensity of the warm-up should affect the range of work on the threshold of anaerobic transformation (deep and strong breath) or even exceed it. In this way, we will ease the stress response of the body to an anaerobic effort.
- Tabata without warming up
What will the tabata look like? It can be interrupted due to failure of some organs and pain. It always gives you fear. It can be done to the very end, but it turns out that the heart rate has reached at most the threshold of anaerobic transitions and this in the last exercises.
After a weak and short warm-up, such a tabata at most can be the complement of the warm-up. In the next, after 2-3 minutes of rest, 90-100% of the maximum oxygen uptake can be achieved.
- The first exercise
At the outset, it should be noted that the human body always uses all energy systems, but to a different degree. It depends on the intensity and the duration of the effort. In the first exercise, the dominant tabta is the anaerobic energy production process associated with the breakdown of phosphocreatine accumulated in cells. This energy is enough for no more than ten seconds of effort.
Can phosphocreatine be restored during the tabata treatment? Energy resources related to this process are being rebuilt within 30 seconds of renewal, approximately 50 percent. The 10-second intervals in the tab do not provide this. So, phosphocreatine resources can be considered as a used source of energy.
- Anaerobic glycolysis
During the first exercise, another anaerobic process is started, which is anaerobic glycolysis. As a result, muscle glycogen breaks down into glucose. Energy-giving lactic acid and ATP molecules are formed. Anaerobic glycolysis develops more slowly than the phosphokinase reaction. Its maximum intensity can be seen within 1-2 minutes of work.
During the second and third exercise, anaerobic glycolysis covers up to 60% of the energy expended. After 2 minutes, its share drops to around 35%. The energy demand for the working organism must already be covered by the developing next energy supply system to the body.
- Oxygen glycolysis
By the halfway point, tabates oxygen processes have little contribution to energy production. Their share, however, is growing. Lung ventilation increases. Breath becomes deeper and deeper until it finally begins to deflate, which means that the threshold of anaerobic transitions is exceeded. If the exercises are well matched and the intensity is maintained, the last minute of tabata is close to the maximum oxygen uptake.
If the exercises are too easy, the body reaches at most the threshold of anaerobic transitions, with increased, but not maximum, or submaximal, oxygen uptake. A significant increase in oxygen metabolism in 3-4 minute effort is associated with oxygen glycolysis. Energy provides the body with the process of breaking down glycogen into glucose and generating energy from glucose using oxygen.
- When is energy derived from fat?
Fats are used to produce energy only through oxygen, but not on the way as intense and short as the tabata effort. Fat burning is best done in the training zone of moderate intensity and during long, continuous efforts. Lipolysis, the formation of energy (ATP) from fat with the participation of oxygen is initiated significantly after about 15-20 minutes of such effort. Tabata does not initiate it, because the effort is too short and intense. The main source of energy is muscular glycogen.
Fat burning follows after training. If it was carried out in high intensity, anaerobic processes that were dominant in such an effort, they caused oxygen debt. Energy that has been produced with oxygen deficiency must be returned to the body. This process takes place already with the participation of oxygen, in rest conditions after exercise.
An increase in metabolism beyond the normal level requires energy, which the body derives mainly from fat burning. Thanks to this energy, the products of anaerobic metabolism are removed from the body, and the state of the systemic balance is restored. This fat burning takes up to several hours after training and is one of the best ways to get rid of excess.
- Tabata – next series
After 2-3 minutes of rest after tabata, the body renews in approximately 95% of ATP and phosphocreatine resources. The condition of resynthesis of energy resources is the level of glycogen in the muscles. If enough of it has been stored, appropriate training and nutrition, it will be possible to make another tabata of appropriate intensity.
Glycogen deficiencies will result in lower intensity of exercise, which will reduce the effect of training. Repeat tabata is a struggle with increasing fatigue. The accumulation of lactic acid, the increase in hydrogen protons, increases the acidification of the blood. The feeling of burnout and infirmity arises.
The result of this repeated effort will be largely determined by the level of training, body tolerance for acidification and speed the occurrence of biological regeneration processes after exercise. The next tabata is usually performed after 30 seconds or 1 minute of rest.
- When to use tabata?
The body should be gradually prepared for work of the highest intensity. A proper training plan is needed, which in turn will prepare the efficiency of energy systems, organs and systems for intensive work. Tabata will be included in the calendar of the developed training plan after a period of work on increasing the efficiency of oxygen metabolism and continuous work.
Gradually incorporated training measures in the form of intervals and an increase in the intensity of effort over the threshold of anaerobic transformation will safely prepare the body for tabata. Thanks to this, the workout will have the intensity and effect assumed. An adequate level of body renewal after exercise will also be achieved.