- The influence of alcohol on the synthesis of muscle proteins
- The influence of alcohol on hydration
- The influence of alcohol on injuries
- Other effects
The influence of alcohol on the synthesis of muscle proteins
Nutrition strategies aimed at maximizing regenerative processes should start in the first hours after training. Laboratory tests have shown that muscle mass synthesis (MPS) is optimized for protein intake of high biological value providing ~ 10 g of essential amino acids. This dose should be taken in the early phase of regeneration, ie 0-2 hours after the activity. The introduction of high-proof beverages at this time may limit the synthesis of MPS. Analyzes by Louise M. Burke et al. (2014) have indicated clear signs of a regeneration disorder after alcohol consumption. Despite the provision of optimal amounts of nutrients, there was a disturbance in the synthesis of muscle mass after physical exercise. Considering the need to promote protein synthesis, which is the basis of adaptation,repair and regeneration of skeletal muscles, clearly suggest limiting the intake of large amounts of alcohol after physical activity.
The influence of alcohol on hydration
Alcohol increases the amount of urine output by inhibiting the diuretic hormone, vasopressin. It is believed that the diuretic effect depends on the level of hydration and alcohol concentration. In a study conducted by Maughan et al. (2010), it was indicated that high doses of alcohol in the amount of 0.92 g alcohol / kg body weight significantly increase urinary excretion and reduce regenerative markers. The same study suggests that lower doses of alcohol lower than 0.49 g alcohol / kg body weight have little effect on water balance and regeneration.
It is worth noting that the amount of alcohol ingested in the study much outweighs the limits of broadly understood moderation. This work was to indicate the impact of alcohol consumption in large quantities, which often occurs during episodic celebration. For example, large doses of alcohol translating into 1 g / kg of body weight for a player weighing 80 kg are 80 g of alcohol. This amount is in 4 large beers or a bottle of wine.
The influence of alcohol on injuries
In particular skeletal muscle injuries commonly occur in many sports, especially in team sports. The time to return to full fitness is an individual matter, depending on the severity of the injury. It is worth noting that if full regeneration is not achieved, then the muscle violation can be increased. Consumption of alcohol during this period will contribute to the worsening of wound healing processes and impaired MPS processes.
In addition to the influence of alcohol on the synthesis of muscle mass, glycogen and hydration, alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced quality of sleep. Severe episodic consumption of alcohol while limiting the hours of sleep causes weight loss. Other studies have shown the effect of alcohol on the cognitive functions of the next day and increased risk of injury.
In summary, nutritional strategies implemented during the post-workout period are aimed at maximizing regenerative processes and should start as early as the first hours after the activity. There is no doubt that the consumption of alcohol after training has a direct effect, hindering regeneration and indirectly limiting food and rest. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of similar evidence regarding the consumption of small amounts of alcohol (one glass of wine, a small mug of beer) – these effects are probably less or even insignificant. Nevertheless, most sports centers recommend restricting alcohol consumption during the post-workout period.
Barnes MJ, Alcohol impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes, Sports Med 44, 2014, 909-919.
Parr EB, Camera DM, Areta JL, Burke LM, Phillips SM, Hawley JA, Coffey VG, Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar. PLoS One. 12; 9 (2) e88384, 2014.
Jeukendrup A., Alcohol and recovery, online www. mysportscience. com.